HILLEL (third century C.E.), scholar. Hillel was the son of gamaliel iii and the grandson of judah ha-nasi , to whom it would seem in his youth he put halakhic queries (BB 83b). He was the younger brother of judah nesiah . He is mentioned as having paid visits, together with his brother, to Kabul in Lower Galilee and Biri in Upper Galilee, where they were mocked at by the local inhabitants for not acting in accordance with local custom (Tosef., MK 2:15; Pes. 51a). They undertook to conform with the local custom. When they visited R. Zakkai in Kabul "the citizens poured out wine and oil in profusion before them" (Tosef., Shab. 7:17). Hillel is mentioned in several places as a teacher of beraitot (Kid. 75a; Git. 37a; Naz. 44b), and he may have been one of the "tannaim of the house of Rabbi" (Judah ha-Nasi). Some of the sayings given in tractate Avot in the name of "Hillel" may be his. Some regard him as the author of the possibly anti-Christian saying in Sanhedrin 99a: "There shall be no Messiah for Israel, because they have already enjoyed him in the days of Hezekiah" (Graetz). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Graetz-Rabbinowitz, 2 (1893), 318–9, 325, 488; Graetz, in: MGWJ, 30 (1881), 433–42; Krauss, in: JQR, 5 (1892/93), 139–40, 156; H. Albeck, Shisah Sidrei Mishnah: Nezikin (1959), 349–50, n. 12; Epstein, Mishnah, 1 (19642), 46–47; Hyman, Toledot, s.v. (Yehoshua Horowitz) HILLEL HILLEL (II; 330–365 C.E.), nasi, the son of Judah Nesi'ah and a grandson of gamaliel iv . After the crushing of the revolt of the Jews against the emperor Gallus and his commander Ursicinus in 351–52 C.E., which resulted in the destruction of many Jewish communities (Sepphoris, Tiberias, Lydda), new decrees were issued against the internal authority of the communities, and also against the observance of Judaism. The Roman government aspired to limit the privileges of the nasi and the freedom of action of the Sanhedrin in Tiberias. Because of the serious condition of the communities of Ereẓ Israel and the deterioration of the Galilean center, Hillel II agreed in principle to limit the authority of the nasi and his functions in connection with the proclamation of the New Moon, the fixing of the festivals, and the intercalation of the year. He thereupon published Sod ha-Ibbur ("The Secret of Intercalation") and Kevi'uta de-Yarha ("The Fixing of the New Month"). According to a tradition mentioned by Hai Gaon and quoted in the Sefer ha-Ibbur of Abraham bar Hiyya (ed. by H. Filipowski (1851), 97) this took place in 358 C.E. Important too is the testimony of Nahmanides in the Sefer ha-Zakkut (Git., ch. 4, Leghorn (1745), 43a): "From the time of Hillel… in the year 670 of the Seleucid era, 4118 A.M. (358 C.E.), the Sanhedrin in Erez Israel ceased and it ceased to have experts, and it was he who regulated the order of intercalation, reckoned the years, and fixed the months for generations to come." Some regard the year 344 as that in which the new calendar was introduced, and it is possible that it was not immediately publicized to the same degree in all localities (Mahler). The opinion has been expressed that Hillel II was not the original creator of the fixed calendar but that it was the result of centuries of development which aimed at achieving a perfected system of fixing the calendar. In the well-known letter of julian the Apostate to the Jews (written in Antioch in 362) the emperor addressed "the patriach Julius" (Hillel), calling him "brother Julos the patriarch" informing him of the rescinding of the taxes imposed on the Jews in the time of the emperor Constantine, and requesting him to withhold and abrogate the apostoli (the payment to the nasi) collected by him from the Jews through his emissaries in order to ease their financial position, and at the same time increase their prayers for the welfare of his realm (I. Bidez and F. Cumont (eds.), Imperatori Juliani epistolae, leges, etc. (1922), 281). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hyman, Toledot, 374f.; Graetz-Rabbinowitz, 2 (1893), 395, 398, 403–5, 423, 488, 490; Halevy, Dorot, 2 (1901), 393–8; Weiss, Dor, 3 (19044), 98–101; A. Schwarz, Der juedische Kalendar (1872), 37, 39, 45; Schuerer, Gesch, 1 (19013–4), 754; L. Lucas,   Zur Geschichte der Juden im 4. Jahrhundert (1910), 3, 79–81; 85; E. Mahler, Handbuch der juedischen Chronologie (1916), 544–79; Schwab, in: Tarbiz, 1 no. 2 (1930), 85–110; 1 no. 3 (1930), 107–21; H. Levy, in: Zion, 6 (1941), 1–32. (Yehoshua Horowitz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HILLEL — (the Elder; end of first century B.C.E. and beginning of first century C.E.), considered one of the fathers of the world (Eduy. 1:4; Tosef. Eduy. 1:3) who laid the foundations for the spiritual and intellectual movement of the tannaitic period.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HILLEL — HILLEL, college campus organization. Jews have been attracted to college and university life since the Haskalah and emancipation opened the doors to higher secular learning. Nowhere has this been more widespread than in the United States where… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hillel — is a Hebrew name of several prominent historical men and modern organizations. People named Hillel Biblical* Hillel was the father of Abdon, a minor character in the Book of Judges. * Hellel ben Shakhar is mentioned in means son of dawn , a… …   Wikipedia

  • Hillel — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le nom Hillel est d origine sémitique, apparenté au Heylel babylonien ou canaanite, nom du dieu de l étoile du matin. Sommaire 1 Dans la Bible 2 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hillel — (der Ältere oder der Alte; hebr. הלל הזקן, Hillel ha zaqen; * um 30 v. Chr.; † um 9 n. Chr.) war einer der bedeutendsten pharisäischen Rabbiner aus der Zeit vor der Zerstörung des zweiten Tempels, Vorsteher des Sanhedrin und Gründer einer Schule… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hillel — • Short essay on the Jewish rabbi and philosopher Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Hillel     Hillel     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Hillel II — Hillel II, (Hebrew: הלל נשיאה, Hillel the Nasi) also known simply as Hillel held the office of Nasi of the ancient Jewish Sanhedrin between 320 and 385 CE. He was the son and successor of Judah III. He was a Jewish communal and religious… …   Wikipedia

  • Hillel II — (en hebreo: הלל נשיאה, Hillel el Nasi) fue Nasi del Sanedrín entre los años 320 y 385, como hijo y el sucesor de Judah III. En dos casos su nombre se menciona en conexión con decisiones importantes sobre la Halajá o ley judía: en una, Jose ben… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Hillel II. — Hillel II. bzw. Hillel Nasia (hebr. הלל נשיאה) war jüdischer Patriarch in der Zeit von 350 365 und wird formal zu den Amoräern der 4. Generation gezählt (nur zweimal in Zusammenhang mit Halachot erwähnt: pal. Berachot I, 5a.; pal. Terumot I, 41a) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hillel 11 — (Иерусалим,Израиль) Категория отеля: 4 звездочный отель Адрес: 11 Hillel Street, Иерусалим …   Каталог отелей

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”